Thirty Years' War ends
Oct 23, · Protestant nobles rebelled, and by the s most of continental Europe was at war. As a result of the Treaty of Westphalia, the Netherlands gained independence . Results of the Thirty Years War The Thirty Years war was the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe, resulting in 8,, lovemedat.com thirty years war was inconclusive, the peace of Westphalia of ended the thirty years war in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic.
One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. The effects of the war included the creation of the Peace yewrs Westphalia and a start to remaking the religious and political boundaries in Europe. This move prompted Ferdinand to seek help from Catholic countries, such as those under the papacy, as well as Spain and what primer to use on plastic bumper Catholic population of Germany.
After several early victories, the Catholic side eventually ran into fierce resistance from King Gustavus Aldophus of Protestant Sweden. After the two sides had each scored varying amounts of success, the Peace of Westphalia created a tentative, if not quite harmonious, peace between the warring factions. Some historians see the end of the war as an end to the wars of religion which had formerly shook the continent.
The tthe also eventually paved the way for the creation of truly individual nations in Europe. On a darker note, the war had decimated a good portion of the European population. More From Reference. What Is Aristocracy? What Do Stars Symbolize?
Causes of the Thirty Years’ War
Thirty Years’ War (–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended, the map of . Aug 24, · The result of the thirty year war was that the German princes could choose their own religion, as long as it was one of the big three. The northern principalities remained primarily protestant while the southern principalities remained mainly Catholic. This is the situation even today over there. France emerged is the greatest power in Europe. Aug 21, · As brutal as the fighting was in the Thirty Years’ War, hundreds of thousands died as a result of famine caused by the conflict as well as an epidemic of typhus, .
It remains one of the longest and most brutal wars in human history, with more than 8 million casualties resulting from military battles as well as from the famine and disease caused by the conflict.
The war lasted from to , starting as a battle among the Catholic and Protestant states that formed the Holy Roman Empire. In the end, the conflict changed the geopolitical face of Europe and the role of religion and nation-states in society.
This effectively calmed simmering tensions between peoples of the two faiths within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 60 years, although there were flare ups, including the Cologne War and the War of the Julich Succession Still, the Holy Roman Empire may have controlled much of Europe at the time, though it was essentially a collection of semi-autonomous states or fiefdoms. The emperor, from the House of Habsburg, had limited authority over their governance.
Soon, armies for both sides were engaged in brutal warfare on multiple fronts, in present-day Austria and in the east in Transylvania, where Ottoman Empire soldiers fought alongside the Bohemians in exchange for yearly dues paid to the sultan against the Poles, who were on the side of the Habsburgs.
Even with help from soldiers from Scotland, however, the armies of Denmark-Norway fell to the forces of Ferdinand II, ceding much of northern Europe to the emperor. But in , Sweden, under the leadership of Gustavus Adolphus, took the side of the northern Protestants and joined the fight, with its army helping to push Catholic forces back and regain much of the lost territory lost by the Protestant Union.
With the support of the Swedes, Protestant victories continued. However, when Gustavus Adolphus was killed in the Battle of Lutzen in , the Swedes lost some of their resolve. Using military assistance of Bohemian nobleman Albrecht von Wallenstein, who provided his army of an estimated 50, soldiers to Ferdinand II in exchange for the freedom to plunder any captured territory, began to respond and, by , the Swedes were vanquished. With religious and political tensions in the latter regions remaining high, fighting continued.
The French, though Catholic, were rivals of the Habsburgs and were unhappy with the provisions of the Peace of Prague. Thus, the French entered the conflict in However, at least initially, their armies were unable to make inroads against the forces of Ferdinand II, even after he died of old age in However, the French recovered, and fighting between the French-Protestant alliance and the forces of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire were at a stalemate for the next several years.
In , the Portuguese began to revolt against their Spanish rulers, thereby weakening their military efforts on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. Two years later, the Swedes re-entered the fray, further weakening Habsburg forces. The next year, , was pivotal in the decades-long conflict. That year, Denmark-Norway took up arms again, this time fighting on the side of the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire.
Over the ensuing years, the French army had several notable victories, but also suffered significant defeats, particularly at the Battle of Herbsthausen in Also in , the Swedes attacked Vienna, but were unable to capture the city from the Holy Roman Empire.
In , the Habsburg forces led by Octavio Piccolomini were able to repel the Swedes and the French from what is now Austria. Weakened by the fighting, for example, Spain lost its grip over Portugal and the Dutch republic. The peace accords also granted increased autonomy to the former Holy Roman Empire states in German-speaking central Europe.
Ultimately, though, historians believe the Peace of Westphalia laid the groundwork for the formation of the modern nation-state, establishing fixed boundaries for the countries involved in the fighting and effectively decreeing that residents of a state were subject to the laws of that state and not to those of any other institution, secular or religious.
This radically altered the balance of power in Europe and resulted in reduced influence over political affairs for the Catholic Church, as well as other religious groups. Catholic Encyclopedia. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
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In northern and central Europe, reformers like She sought to return England to the Catholic He famously married a series of six wives in his search for political alliance, marital bliss and a healthy male heir. His desire to Civilizations around the world have been celebrating the start of each new year for at least four millennia. Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Gustavus Adolphus But in , Sweden, under the leadership of Gustavus Adolphus, took the side of the northern Protestants and joined the fight, with its army helping to push Catholic forces back and regain much of the lost territory lost by the Protestant Union.
French Involvement The French, though Catholic, were rivals of the Habsburgs and were unhappy with the provisions of the Peace of Prague. By this time, only the Austrian territories remained under the control of the Habsburgs.
Sommerville, J. Franklin D. New Year's. History of New Year's Eve. New Year's Day Feast. Peloponnesian War The two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta, went to war with each other from to B.
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