Ancient Rome. Discover Ancient Rome from the legendary period dominated by kings through the Republic and Empire with biographies, timelines, and maps. Apr 09, · There was a time when the Roman Empire boasted the most extensive political and social structure in the history of ancient Western lovemedat.com the peak of the empire in the first and second centuries AD, ancient Rome covered million square kilometers of land, and the number of inhabitants was estimated to be around 50 to 90 million.
There was a time when the Roman Empire boasted the most extensive political and social structure in the history of ancient Western civilization. At the peak of the empire in the first and second centuries AD, ancient Rome covered 6.
Ancient Rome gave rise to many famous personalities like Julius Caesar, Cicero, and Augustus, and many more renowned Romans who are still remembered today. But it also saw the reign of notorious emperors such as Nero and Caligula among others, whose regimes of terror still send a chill down the spines of historians or pretty much anyone who reads about what it was like to live in those times.
From famous gladiatorsthe ancient Roman superstars, to powerful emperors that made a long-lasting impact, here is a list of the top 10 famous people of ancient Rome:. So what is an infamous near-dictator doing on this list? Well, when you make a list of famous people, you put in the good, the bad, and the ugly too! Nero was part ugly and all bad. During his rule, two-thirds of Rome was burnt down, which led to a massive loss of life and property.
And even though he could not stop the blitz, he did not even try to put how to keep fish healthy the fire. Instead, he saw Rome burn to the ground from his palace, singing through the entire catastrophe. Things get even uglier when the evidence points to Nero being the one who started the fire in the first place because the Roman Senate had refused to give him land to build a new palace.
The first thing he did once the fire had died down was to build himself a brand new palace in the newly vacated space. Most of us are familiar with this emperor turned wanna-be gladiator from the famous movie Gladiator in which Emperor Lucius Aurelius Commodus was played by the gifted actor Joaquin Phoenix.
Breaking the trend of accession to the throne based on merit, Commodus took the throne as a right by birth. His father, How to put on a metal roof video Aurelius, was considered one of the greatest Romans to have ever ascended the throne, and Commodus, quite understandably, could not live up to his standards.
But his failure as an emperor was so epic that it undid most of the good that Marcus Aurelius had toiled to achieve during his reign. A cruel, power-hungry egomaniac, he saw himself as numero uno in the world. He styled himself on Hercules, and fancied himself as a gladiator, often neglecting his political duties and entering into the fighting arena against weak and poor opponents. Needless to say, this guy was hated by most Romans, and he was eventually assassinated by his own inner circle.
And he sure did go on to become one of the most outstanding emperors of ancient Rome. His reign saw Rome reach new heights of development, and a considerable expansion of the empire.
Unlike his many predecessors, he treated the Roman Senate with respect, and always made sure the most competent and honest candidates were designated the rulers of the provinces. However, he was not just an emperor with a solid military background, he was also known for his wisdom and dignity. His first priority was always the welfare of the common people. He provided free grain to the poor and even set up funds for poor people and children. He also facilitated many popular public developments such as new roads and harbors.
Needless to say, the reign of Emperor Trajan was a glittering one. As a distinguished officer during the Third Punic War, it was his negotiating skills that saved the lives of more than 20, Roman soldiers when they found themselves in dire straits in Numantia. Even though this move was resented by the Roman Senate which felt that the Roman army had given up without a fight, Tiberius recognized the fragility of Roman power. However, he is best known for his ideologies and practices of equality between the upper-class elite and lower-class peasants.
With the plight of peasant workers worsening every day, the rise of slave labor further degraded the peasants, and for obvious reasons, his ideas were not popular with the Senate and the Roman elite who owned much of land. Eventually, he was assassinated in a riot sparked by his senatorial opponents.
Constantine I was also known as Constantine the Great, and he happened to be one of those what is simulation training method who did true justice to their names.
The vast Roman Empire had been divided up between many different rulers by the third century AD. Constantine defeated all the would-be emperors and unified the divisions in the Roman kingdom. He then decided to relocate the capital from Rome to what was then Byzantium. Still not satisfied, he went on to rename the new capital as the more familiar-sounding Constantinopolis. Constantine is known in history as the first Christian Roman emperor.
He not only initiated the evolution of the Roman Empire into a Christian state, but also opened a pathway for a culture with distinct influences from Christianity, which eventually had a huge impact on Western medieval culture. This legendary Roman general and statesman single handedly evolved the Roman army into one of the most effective and well-organized fighting bodies the world has ever seen.
A cunning tactician, Gaius Marius also held the office of consul an unprecedented seven times in a row. However, he is best known for the changes he brought about to the Roman military legions, dramatic and influential reforms that forever changed the rules of engagement.
At a time what is ti so4 2 attacks and invasions from barbarian and German tribes posed a huge threat to the entire Roman Republic, he saw the need to increase recruitment which was significantly down because of the strict standards that had been set for potential soldiers. But once Marius took over, men from the provinces could sign up for the army and in time become Roman citizens.
He went on to win many decisive battles with his new army, the famous ones being the battles of Aquae Sextiae and Campi Raudii, where his victories saved the republic from a seemingly inevitable barbarian defeat.
Widely considered one of the greatest orators and writers to have lived in ancient Rome, he was also a philosopher, respected politician, lawyer, political theorist, consul, and constitutionalist. As a writer, his influence on the Latin language was so immense that subsequent writings up until the late 19th century paid homage to his style.
A contemporary of Julius Caesar, Cicero also wrote a number of books of which six on rhetoric survive today along with fragments of eight others on philosophy. Julius Caesar is arguably the most well known of the ancient Romans.
Even though most people may not have the slightest idea when it comes to ancient Rome, chances are that they will still have heard of the prodigious Roman emperor and self-appointed dictator Julius Caesar. The conflict in Gaul was proving to be the biggest obstacle to the path of Roman glory, and it was his brilliant campaign to conquer Gaul which led to his success, his strategies still being studied what happened to ghost hunters 2015 training generals to this day.
He also led expeditions to Germany what does republic mean in ancient rome Britain, both of which were foreign territories to Rome at that time. But his ruthless success also gave rise to a number of political enemies, who plotted against him time and again. It was when he famously crossed the Rubicon and took control of Rome as a dictator that his opponents silently turned what jobs are good for 16 year olds him.
This animosity eventually led to his assassination which was plotted by Roman senators who repeatedly stabbed him to death. See also: Top 10 Inventions of Ancient Rome. Without a doubt, the most famous gladiator in the whole of Roman history was Spartacus. Spartacus, a Thracian by birth, was a soldier captured in war and then sold into slavery to fight as a gladiator.
Before he was enslaved and forced to fight in the Roman arenas, not much was known about him, largely because the Romans never bothered to document the early lives of gladiators. It was estimated that at its peak the number of slaves in Rome was around one and a half million. However, despite repeated slave uprisings, the Romans never took them seriously. Those in power were resting on their laurels. First Spartacus convinced some 70 fellow gladiators to revolt and escape to the slopes of Mount Vesuvius.
Then, over a period of about two years until 71 BC, he freed a number of slaves and trained them to form an army of 70, individuals. This immediately captured the attention of the Roman Senate, which sent a number what is the difference between switch and router legions to fight the slave force and kill Spartacus himself, but not before he made his mark on Roman history.
Born Gaius Octavius, Augustus is known as the founder of the Roman Empire, and a move away from the old Roman Republic and its first emperor. He reigned from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. He later had a falling-out with Antony, and showing great strength of character, he went on to defeat Antony and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra in battle, thus securing his path to glory. Despite continual opposition, Augustus stood strong and his reign what does republic mean in ancient rome the foundations of a regime that lasted for nearly 1, years through to the ultimate decline of the Western Roman Empire.
Together with the Roman Senate, he scripted a new constitution for the great Roman Empire over which he ruled wisely, building roads, aqueducts, and many famous buildings. He remains to this day the most famous and wise Roman emperor of them all.
Ancient Rome had a very rich history which saw the rise and fall of many famous people who are still talked about to this day. From the craziest of the emperors and the bravest of the gladiators to the biggest names in ancient philosophy, ancient Rome did give us its fair share of noteworthy personalities. In fact, this list probably does not do justice to the subject for there were many other famous Romans who could have easily made it on to the list.
But since we had how to remove a broken bleeder screw choose only 10, the aforementioned Romans were indeed outstanding figures in Roman history. Caligula is actually really important because of the way he became sick then supposedly became possessed and began viciously killing people. No africanus? I guess that Spartacus was more a romantic symbol a rebellion leader than Gaius Julius Caesar IV a military leader and conqueror so he comes before.
Glad that this list includes Augustus but… why is Marcus Aurelius not included? Trajan is of course how to work out area of cylinder, his reign topped the Roman regions to its largest.
Sulla and some other dictators may be famous, but I guess Caesar is the most famous so this only lists his name. So… what do we have? The first and arguable the most important — year reign and era of the Roman Peace emperor of United Roman Empire 2.
The most famous gladiator 3. The most famous dictator dictator as a political position in ancient Romeone of the key figure in the transformation of the Empire 4. Amongst the most famous orators, and a distinguished politician 5.
Amongst the most famous generals 6. The emperor who played an important role in making Christianity the major religion in Europe 7.
The most famous reformer and a distinguished politician 8. The emperor which reign the empire reached its maximum territorial extent 9. Amongst the most famous Roman crowned tyrants. While all the above are interesting you fail to see the forest because of the trees The one Roman who even though personally was insignificant.
His name has been uttered more times than anyone else Daily millions of times and known more for what he did not do than what he did. As you said, Trajan was of Italian origin from the Gens Ulpia the city in Spain he was born in is even called Italica.
The first Emperor that was seemingly not even partially Italian in origin was Maximinus Thrax, years later. AND, Marius, in old age, was the instigator of a terrible civil war. Mixed legacy at best. Nero was hated by how to comment in php code Senate.
Latin (latinum, [la?t?i?n??] or lingua latina, [?l????a la?t?i?na]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European lovemedat.com was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire, before eventually. Syria (Arabic: ???????? ?, romanized: Suriya), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: ????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?, romanized: al-Jumhuriyah al-?Arabiyah as-Suriyah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east. Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy. The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety.
Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety pietas in maintaining good relations with the gods.
The Romans are known for the great number of deities they honored, a capacity that earned the mockery of early Christian polemicists. The presence of Greeks on the Italian peninsula from the beginning of the historical period influenced Roman culture , introducing some religious practices that became as fundamental as the cult of Apollo. The Romans looked for common ground between their major gods and those of the Greeks interpretatio graeca , adapting Greek myths and iconography for Latin literature and Roman art , as the Etruscans had.
Etruscan religion was also a major influence, particularly on the practice of augury. According to legends , most of Rome's religious institutions could be traced to its founders , particularly Numa Pompilius , the Sabine second king of Rome , who negotiated directly with the gods. This archaic religion was the foundation of the mos maiorum , "the way of the ancestors" or simply "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity.
Roman religion was practical and contractual, based on the principle of do ut des , "I give that you might give". Religion depended on knowledge and the correct practice of prayer, ritual, and sacrifice, not on faith or dogma, although Latin literature preserves learned speculation on the nature of the divine and its relation to human affairs.
Even the most skeptical among Rome's intellectual elite such as Cicero , who was an augur, saw religion as a source of social order. As the Roman Empire expanded, migrants to the capital brought their local cults, many of which became popular among Italians. Christianity was in the end the most successful of these, and in became the official state religion. For ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life.
Neighborhood shrines and sacred places such as springs and groves dotted the city. Women , slaves , and children all participated in a range of religious activities. Some public rituals could be conducted only by women, and women formed what is perhaps Rome's most famous priesthood, the state-supported Vestals , who tended Rome's sacred hearth for centuries, until disbanded under Christian domination.
The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes. There was no principle analogous to separation of church and state in ancient Rome. During the Roman Republic —27 BC , the same men who were elected public officials might also serve as augurs and pontiffs. Priests married, raised families, and led politically active lives. Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus before he was elected consul.
The augurs read the will of the gods and supervised the marking of boundaries as a reflection of universal order, thus sanctioning Roman expansionism as a matter of divine destiny. The Roman triumph was at its core a religious procession in which the victorious general displayed his piety and his willingness to serve the public good by dedicating a portion of his spoils to the gods, especially Jupiter , who embodied just rule.
As a result of the Punic Wars — BC , when Rome struggled to establish itself as a dominant power, many new temples were built by magistrates in fulfillment of a vow to a deity for assuring their military success.
As the Romans extended their dominance throughout the Mediterranean world, their policy in general was to absorb the deities and cults of other peoples rather than try to eradicate them,  since they believed that preserving tradition promoted social stability. Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the side-by-side worship of local and Roman deities, including dedications made by Romans to local gods.
By the height of the Empire, numerous international deities were cultivated at Rome and had been carried to even the most remote provinces , among them Cybele , Isis , Epona , and gods of solar monism such as Mithras and Sol Invictus , found as far north as Roman Britain. Foreign religions increasingly attracted devotees among Romans, who increasingly had ancestry from elsewhere in the Empire.
Imported mystery religions , which offered initiates salvation in the afterlife, were a matter of personal choice for an individual, practiced in addition to carrying on one's family rites and participating in public religion. The mysteries, however, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of " magic ", conspiratorial coniuratio , or subversive activity.
Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional morality and unity, as with the Senate 's efforts to restrict the Bacchanals in BC.
Because Romans had never been obligated to cultivate one god or one cult only, religious tolerance was not an issue in the sense that it is for monotheistic systems. In the wake of the Republic's collapse , state religion had adapted to support the new regime of the emperors. Augustus , the first Roman emperor, justified the novelty of one-man rule with a vast program of religious revivalism and reform. Public vows formerly made for the security of the republic now were directed at the well-being of the emperor.
So-called "emperor worship" expanded on a grand scale the traditional Roman veneration of the ancestral dead and of the Genius , the divine tutelary of every individual. The Imperial cult became one of the major ways in which Rome advertised its presence in the provinces and cultivated shared cultural identity and loyalty throughout the Empire. Rejection of the state religion was tantamount to treason. This was the context for Rome's conflict with Christianity , which Romans variously regarded as a form of atheism and novel superstitio , while Christians considered Roman religion to be paganism.
Ultimately, Roman polytheism was brought to an end with the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. The Roman mythological tradition is particularly rich in historical myths, or legends , concerning the foundation and rise of the city. These narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny.
For Rome's earliest period, history and myth are difficult to distinguish. According to mythology, Rome had a semi-divine ancestor in the Trojan refugee Aeneas , son of Venus , who was said to have established the nucleus of Roman religion when he brought the Palladium , Lares and Penates from Troy to Italy. These objects were believed in historical times to remain in the keeping of the Vestals , Rome's female priesthood. Aeneas, according to classical authors, had been given refuge by King Evander , a Greek exile from Arcadia , to whom were attributed other religious foundations: he established the Ara Maxima , "Greatest Altar", to Hercules at the site that would become the Forum Boarium , and, so the legend went, he was the first to celebrate the Lupercalia , an archaic festival in February that was celebrated as late as the 5th century of the Christian era.
The myth of a Trojan founding with Greek influence was reconciled through an elaborate genealogy the Latin kings of Alba Longa with the well-known legend of Rome's founding by Romulus and Remus.
The most common version of the twins' story displays several aspects of hero myth. Their mother, Rhea Silvia , had been ordered by her uncle the king to remain a virgin, in order to preserve the throne he had usurped from her father. Through divine intervention, the rightful line was restored when Rhea Silvia was impregnated by the god Mars.
She gave birth to twins, who were duly exposed by order of the king but saved through a series of miraculous events. Romulus and Remus regained their grandfather's throne and set out to build a new city, consulting with the gods through augury , a characteristic religious institution of Rome that is portrayed as existing from earliest times. The brothers quarrel while building the city walls, and Romulus kills Remus, an act that is sometimes seen as sacrificial.
Fratricide thus became an integral part of Rome's founding myth. Romulus was credited with several religious institutions. He founded the Consualia festival, inviting the neighbouring Sabines to participate; the ensuing rape of the Sabine women by Romulus's men further embedded both violence and cultural assimilation in Rome's myth of origins. As a successful general, Romulus is also supposed to have founded Rome's first temple to Jupiter Feretrius and offered the spolia opima , the prime spoils taken in war, in the celebration of the first Roman triumph.
Spared a mortal's death, Romulus was mysteriously spirited away and deified. His Sabine successor Numa was pious and peaceable, and credited with numerous political and religious foundations, including the first Roman calendar ; the priesthoods of the Salii , flamines , and Vestals; the cults of Jupiter , Mars, and Quirinus ; and the Temple of Janus , whose doors stayed open in times of war but in Numa's time remained closed. After Numa's death, the doors to the Temple of Janus were supposed to have remained open until the reign of Augustus.
Each of Rome's legendary or semi-legendary kings was associated with one or more religious institutions still known to the later Republic.
Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius instituted the fetial priests. The first "outsider" Etruscan king, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus , founded a Capitoline temple to the triad Jupiter, Juno and Minerva which served as the model for the highest official cult throughout the Roman world. The benevolent, divinely fathered Servius Tullius established the Latin League , its Aventine Temple to Diana , and the Compitalia to mark his social reforms. Servius Tullius was murdered and succeeded by the arrogant Tarquinius Superbus , whose expulsion marked the beginning of Rome as a republic with annually elected magistrates.
Roman historians  regarded the essentials of Republican religion as complete by the end of Numa's reign, and confirmed as right and lawful by the Senate and people of Rome : the sacred topography of the city , its monuments and temples, the histories of Rome's leading families , and oral and ritual traditions.
Rome offers no native creation myth , and little mythography to explain the character of its deities, their mutual relationships or their interactions with the human world, but Roman theology acknowledged that di immortales immortal gods ruled all realms of the heavens and earth. There were gods of the upper heavens, gods of the underworld and a myriad of lesser deities between. Some evidently favoured Rome because Rome honoured them, but none were intrinsically, irredeemably foreign or alien.
The political, cultural and religious coherence of an emergent Roman super-state required a broad, inclusive and flexible network of lawful cults.
At different times and in different places, the sphere of influence, character and functions of a divine being could expand, overlap with those of others, and be redefined as Roman. Change was embedded within existing traditions. Several versions of a semi-official, structured pantheon were developed during the political, social and religious instability of the Late Republican era.
Jupiter , the most powerful of all gods and "the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested", consistently personified the divine authority of Rome's highest offices, internal organization and external relations. During the archaic and early Republican eras, he shared his temple , some aspects of cult and several divine characteristics with Mars and Quirinus , who were later replaced by Juno and Minerva.
A conceptual tendency toward triads may be indicated by the later agricultural or plebeian triad of Ceres , Liber and Libera , and by some of the complementary threefold deity-groupings of Imperial cult. These later Roman pantheistic hierarchies are part literary and mythographic, part philosophical creations, and often Greek in origin.
The Hellenization of Latin literature and culture supplied literary and artistic models for reinterpreting Roman deities in light of the Greek Olympians , and promoted a sense that the two cultures had a shared heritage. The impressive, costly, and centralised rites to the deities of the Roman state were vastly outnumbered in everyday life by commonplace religious observances pertaining to an individual's domestic and personal deities, the patron divinities of Rome's various neighborhoods and communities, and the often idiosyncratic blends of official, unofficial, local and personal cults that characterised lawful Roman religion.
In this spirit, a provincial Roman citizen who made the long journey from Bordeaux to Italy to consult the Sibyl at Tibur did not neglect his devotion to his own goddess from home:. I wander, never ceasing to pass through the whole world, but I am first and foremost a faithful worshiper of Onuava. I am at the ends of the earth, but the distance cannot tempt me to make my vows to another goddess.
Love of the truth brought me to Tibur, but Onuava's favorable powers came with me. Thus, divine mother, far from my home-land, exiled in Italy, I address my vows and prayers to you no less. Throughout the life of Rome, a numerous array of "mystery cults" appeared. These cults were generally founded upon legends or sacred stories, such as the tale of Orpheus.
Several had a basis in other cultures, such as the Cult of Isis, an Egyptian goddess. The members generally knew the stories were pure legend, but they provided a model for their followers to obey. These cults had often expensive, long, or trying initiation processes, which differed between cults, but prospective members were promised with a path to a better atmosphere and an atmosphere that fostered social bonds, known as mystai. These bonds were generated due to the fact that most of these cults regularly practiced common meals among members, dances, ceremonies and rituals, and the aforementioned initiations.
The focus of the cult, such as the focus on Orpheus among Orphic cults, did not necessarily dictate the theology of its members. The legendary tales were meant to guide members, but the deities involved tended to be a lesser focus. Mystery cults were present and generally accepted throughout much of Rome and provided a unique theological experience for their members. Roman calendars show roughly forty annual religious festivals.
Some lasted several days, others a single day or less: sacred days dies fasti outnumbered "non-sacred" days dies nefasti. Some of the most ancient and popular festivals incorporated ludi "games", such as chariot races and theatrical performances , with examples including those held at Palestrina in honour of Fortuna Primigenia during Compitalia , and the Ludi Romani in honour of Liber.
Other public festivals were not required by the calendar, but occasioned by events. The triumph of a Roman general was celebrated as the fulfillment of religious vows , though these tended to be overshadowed by the political and social significance of the event.