Welcome to Grant County in Beautiful Southwest Wisconsin!
Grant County Economic Development Corporation Ron Brisbois, Executive Director Bronson Boulevard Fennimore, WI Phone: Toll-Free: Fax: Email: [email protected] Grant County Quick Facts. The Cheese Country and Pecatonica State trails are maintained by the Tri-County ATV Club and its members. The Cheese Country trail connects Lafayette to Iowa and Green Counties, while County approved road routes for ATV/UTV's link to Grant County and Jo Daviess County, IL making it easy to see the wonderful landscapes of the driftless region.
Maps of Illinois are a great resource to help learn about a place at a particular point in time. Old Illinois maps are effective sources of geographical information and useful for historical, genealogical and territorial research. Our collection of Illinois maps includes many different historic and modern types of maps.
The maps date from the 18th century to the present and wisxonsin. Historical Maps of Illinois are a great resource to help counnty about a how much does a remington 30 06 cost at a particular point in time. Illinois Maps are vital historical evidence but must be interpreted cautiously and carefully.
The Illinois State Historical Library has county plat books and atlases available for the years of around to Those Illinois maps show townships and ownership of various lands at the times that the maps were drawn. However, plat books must be examined on-site.
The Illinois State Library can also provide a list of its land map and atlas holdings. The oldest available Illinois Ahat map is from This Historical Illinois Map Collection are from original copies. Most historical maps of Illinois were what do young pigeons eat in atlases and spans over years of counfy for the state.
Some Whag maps years have cities, railroads, P. This Interactive Map of Illinois Counties show the historical boundaries, names, organization, wisconsim attachments of every county, extinct county and unsuccessful county proposal from the creation of the Illinois territory in to The Illinois D.
Highway Department has prepared a series of county road maps free online. These Illinois road maps contain more detailed information about man-made features wisconsim the geological survey maps. In addition to roads and boundaries, these maps include rural communities, churchesand cemeteries.
These Township Maps emphasize the display of the road network on a regional basis without regard to specific city and village boundaries. Skip to content. IL State Facts Save. Table of Contents hide. Illinois Map Collections. Map of Illinois County Formations Illinois Township Road Maps. External Illinois Map Resources. Richmond Burton Township Map Richwoods.
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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. When coffee berries turn from green to bright red in color – indicating ripeness – they are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (referred to as "beans") are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near. LANCASTER, Wis. -- Grant County officials released election results at about 9 a.m. today after Wisconsin residents headed to the polls Tuesday to fill municipal and school board positions, among other seats. Below is a listing of notable races in southwest Wisconsin for which unofficial results. Adams County. Adams-Friendship High School, Adams; Ashland County. Ashland High School, Ashland; Butternut High School, Butternut; Glidden High School, Glidden.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans , the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. When coffee berries turn from green to bright red in color — indicating ripeness — they are picked, processed, and dried. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee.
Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It is usually served hot, although chilled or iced coffee is common. Sugar , sugar substitutes , milk or cream are often used to lessen the bitter taste. Clinical research indicates that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial as a stimulant in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption reduces the risk of some diseases, although some of the long-term studies are of questionable credibility.
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking as the modern beverage appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines where coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to how it is now prepared for drinking. By the 16th century , the drink had reached the rest of the Middle East and North Africa , later spreading to Europe. The two most commonly grown coffee bean types are C. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries , primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia , the Indian subcontinent, and Africa.
Green, unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Consequently, the markets for fair trade and organic coffee are expanding. The term coffee pot dates from According to one legend, ancestors of today's Oromo people in a region of Kaffa in Ethiopia were the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant. Another legend attributes the discovery of coffee to a Sheikh Omar. According to an old chronicle preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript , Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha in Yemen to a desert cave near Ousab modern-day Wusab, about 90 kilometres 56 mi east of Zabid.
He tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the seed, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint.
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century in the accounts of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen.
Coffee was used by Sufi circles to stay awake for their religious rituals. From Ethiopia, coffee could have been introduced to Yemen via trade across the Red Sea. Famous 16th-century Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami notes in his writings of a beverage called qahwa developed from a tree in the Zeila region. According to Captain Haines, who was the colonial administrator of Aden — , Mocha historically imported up to two-thirds of their coffee from Berbera-based merchants before the coffee trade of Mocha was captured by British-controlled Aden in the 19th century.
Thereafter, much of the Ethiopian coffee was exported to Aden via Berbera. Berbera not only supplies Aden with horned cattle and sheep to a very large extent, but the trade between Africa and Aden is steadily increasing greatly every year.
In the article of coffee alone there is considerable export, and ' Berbera' coffee stands in the Bombay market now before Mocha. The coffee shipped at Berbera comes from far in the interior from Hurrar, Abyssinia, and Kaffa.
It will be to the advantage of all that the trade should come to Aden through one port, and Berbera is the only place on the coast there that has a protected port, where vessels can lie in smooth water. By the 16th century, coffee had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia , Turkey , and northern Africa.
Before then, all exported coffee was boiled or otherwise sterilised. Portraits of Baba Budan depict him as having smuggled seven coffee seeds by strapping them to his chest.
The first plants grown from these smuggled seeds were planted in Mysore. Coffee had spread to Italy by , and then to the rest of Europe, Indonesia , and the Americas. In , Leonhard Rauwolf , a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East :. A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses , particularly those of the stomach.
Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. The first European coffee house opened in Rome in The Dutch East India Company was the first to import coffee on a large scale. John Evelyn recorded tasting the drink at Oxford in England in a diary entry of May to where it had been brought by a student of Balliol College from Crete named Nathaniel Conopios of Crete.
Coffee was introduced in France in , and in Austria and Poland after the Battle of Vienna , when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. When coffee reached North America during the Colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe as alcoholic beverages remained more popular. During the Revolutionary War , the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants,  and a general resolution among many Americans to avoid drinking tea following the Boston Tea Party.
During the 18th century, coffee consumption declined in England, giving way to tea-drinking. The latter beverage was simpler to make, and had become cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. The Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu took a coffee plant to the French territory of Martinique in the Caribbean in the s,  from which much of the world's cultivated arabica coffee is descended.
Coffee thrived in the climate and was conveyed across the Americas. The coffee industry never fully recovered there. Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in , although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in Cultivation was taken up by many countries in Central America in the latter half of the 19th century, and almost all involved the large-scale displacement and exploitation of the indigenous people.
Harsh conditions led to many uprisings, coups and bloody suppression of peasants. Smaller farms and more egalitarian conditions ameliorated unrest over the 19th and 20th centuries. Rapid growth in coffee production in South America during the second half of the 19th century was matched by growth in consumption in developed countries, though nowhere has this growth been as pronounced as in the United States, where a high rate of population growth was compounded by doubling of per capita consumption between and Though the United States was not the heaviest coffee-drinking nation at the time Nordic countries , Belgium, and Netherlands all had comparable or higher levels of per capita consumption , due to its sheer size, it was already the largest consumer of coffee in the world by , and, by , around half of all coffee produced worldwide was consumed in the US.
Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many developing countries. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as their primary source of income.
It has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia,  as well as many Central American countries. Several species of shrub of the genus Coffea produce the berries from which coffee is extracted.
The two main species commercially cultivated are Coffea canephora predominantly a form known as 'robusta' and C. All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae. They are evergreen shrubs or trees that may grow 5 m 15 ft tall when unpruned.
The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10—15 cm 4—6 in long and 6 cm 2. Petioles of opposite leaves fuse at the base to form interpetiolar stipules , characteristic of Rubiaceae. The flowers are axillary , and clusters of fragrant white flowers bloom simultaneously. Gynoecium consists of an inferior ovary, also characteristic of Rubiaceae.
The flowers are followed by oval berries of about 1. Coffea arabica is predominantly self-pollinating, and as a result, the seedlings are generally uniform and vary little from their parents. In contrast, Coffea canephora , and C. This means that useful forms and hybrids must be propagated vegetatively.
Named Strychnos electri , after the Greek word for amber electron , the flowers represent the first-ever fossils of an asterid , which is a clade of flowering plants that not only later gave us coffee, but also sunflowers, peppers, potatoes, mint — and deadly poisons. The traditional method of planting coffee is to place 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. A more effective process of growing coffee, used in Brazil, is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside at six to twelve months.
Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn , beans , or rice during the first few years of cultivation as farmers become familiar with its requirements. Of the two main species grown, arabica coffee from C. Robusta coffee tends to be bitter and have less flavor but better body than arabica.
For these reasons, about three-quarters of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. Good quality robusta beans are used in traditional Italian espresso blends to provide a full-bodied taste and a better foam head known as crema.
Additionally, Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. From Java, further breeding resulted in the establishment of robusta plantations in many countries.
Hemileia vastatrix is a fungal pathogen  and results in light, rust-colored spots on the undersides of coffee plant leaves. Hemileia vastatrix grows exclusively on the leaves of coffee pants. Mycena citricolor is another threat to coffee plants, primarily in Latin America. Mycena citricolor, commonly referred to as American Leaf Spot, is a fungus that can affect the whole coffee plant.
Over species of insect have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide. Of these, over a third are beetles , and over a quarter are bugs. Some 20 species of nematodes , 9 species of mites, and several snails and slugs also attack the crop. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries, but their impact is minor compared to invertebrates.
Each part of the coffee plant is assailed by different animals. Nematodes attack the roots, coffee borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material,  and the foliage is attacked by over species of larvae caterpillars of butterflies and moths. Mass spraying of insecticides has often proven disastrous, as predators of the pests are more sensitive than the pests themselves.
Branches infested with scale are often cut and left on the ground, which promotes scale parasites to not only attack the scale on the fallen branches but in the plant as well. The 2-mm-long coffee borer beetle Hypothenemus hampei is the most damaging insect pest to the world's coffee industry, destroying up to 50 percent or more of the coffee berries on plantations in most coffee-producing countries.
The adult female beetle nibbles a single tiny hole in a coffee berry and lays 35 to 50 eggs. Inside, the offspring grow, mate, and then emerge from the commercially ruined berry to disperse, repeating the cycle. Pesticides are mostly ineffective because the beetle juveniles are protected inside the berry nurseries, but they are vulnerable to predation by birds when they emerge.