Causes of World War 1
Answers. answered: Farhan The major source of tension between Austria-Hungary and Russia was the so-called Eastern Question: what to do about the weakening Ottoman Empire and its rebellious Christian subjects. Serbia rejected the ultimatum and on 28 July , Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. . View this answer. The July Ultimatum and Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia brought Russia into World War I. On June 28, , Serbian nationalists See full answer below.
The largest military conflict to that time was caused by several factors and no single event or person can be held responsible for its outbreak. However, the mentioned article which came to be known as the War Guilt Clause and created the myth of German guilt for World War 1 did not contain the word guilt and was intended to provide a legal basis for war reparations imposed upon Germany.
In addition, the peace treaties signed by Austria and Hungary contained virtually identical article but was not interpreted as a war guilt clause. Vienna that held Serbia responsible for the Sarajevo assassination issued Belgrade an ultimatum which was not expected to be accepted in the first place. However, the Dual Monarchy had other reasons to start a war against Serbia aside the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.
The Austro-Hungarian empire at the beginning of the 20th what caused the conflict between russia and austria hungary witnessed rise of nationalism among its Slavic population in the Balkans who felt oppressed by their Magyar rulers. Vienna coonflict that Serbia may become a core of a future South Slavic state and exclude the Dual Monarchy from the lower Danube valley, especially after Serbia achieved a major success during the Balkan Wars in and Austro-Hungarian statesmen hoped to discourage their Slavic population from turning to Belgrade for support by humiliating Serbia.
But there was more behind the story and the European great powers would not get involved in the long, costly and devastating war only over the dispute between the Dual Monarchy and its smaller Balkan neighbor. Europe enjoyed the longest period of peace in modern history before the outbreak of World War 1. After the Franco-Prussian War inthe great powers settled disputes among themselves via diplomacy although the rivalry continued.
Russia and Austria-Hungary competed for influence and territory in the Southeastern Europe since the 18th century, while their rivalry reached its height after the Russian defeat against Japan in that ended the Russian imperial ambitions in the Far East. Russia and Serbia were forced to accept the annexation of Bosnia in but the Tsarist government decided to prevent repetition ahstria year when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia in Why Germany supported Austria-Hungary in its intentions in the Balkans and even encouraged Vienna to settle its accounts with Serbia by military measures despite the danger of war with Russia remains a matter of debate.
He dismissed Bismarck in and refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia which maintained whhat between Austria-Hungary and Russia, and kept France isolated. The latter never got over the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany during the Franco-Prussian War, however, the French Third Republic was aware that it needs an ally to recapture the lost territories from the Germans.
They signed a military alliance already inwhile France and Great Britain settled their disputes with the Entente cordiale in which became the basis of the future Triple Entente among France, Russia and Great Britain. The latter was primarily focused on its overseas territories at the end of the 19th century what does vingt mean in french the Anglo-German clash of interests during the Ehat for Africa, the German rapid economic growth and in the first place, the German build-up of the navy that was perceived as a direct threat to the British naval supremacy forced London to deal with continental balance of power at the beginning of the 20th century.
The British who were convinced that the German Empire is evolving into the dominant force on the Continent entered negotiations with their colonial rivals, France and Russia. These resulted in the formation of the Triple Entente in as a counterweight to the Triple Alliance, a military alliance signed between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in Division of Europe into two military camps at first glance established the balance of power between the European great powers but it turned out to be one of the main contributors to World War 1 as it prevented the diplomacy to resolve the July Crisis that broke out after the Sarajevo assassination.
Imperialism, in the first place the Scramble for Africa is considered one of the leading causes of World War 1 by many historians despite the fact that neither country had much direct benefits from its African colonies except for Belgium. The race how to open pf account in sbi the African colonies undoubtedly increased austeia tensions between the European great powers but it actually helped preserve peace in Europe as it distracted them from the European issues.
There were several crises over non-European territories but they did not represent a risk of war between the European powers except for the Moroccan Crises in and which were not caused by the colonial rivalry directly.
They were provoked by the Germans who primarily wanted to test the newly concluded Anglo-French alliance. Decline of the Ottoman Empire was a greater threat to the European peace than the Scramble for Africa as its cpnflict directly affected all European great powers as well as the young Balkan states of Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro and in lesser extent Romania.
Despite an official consensus among ths European powers about territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire, there was a shift in policy towards the Ottoman Turks at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Britain occupied Egypt in despite the fact that it was officially an integral part of the Ottoman Empire, while Italy captured Libya and the Dodecanese islands from the Ottomans in The Italo-Turkish War that revealed the weakness of the Ottoman Army and disagreement about the future fate of the Ottoman Empire among the European powers was taken advantage by the Balkan League, a coalition between Serbia, Montenegro, Uhngary and Bulgaria who captured most of the Ottoman lands what way is north from my location the Southeastern Europe during the First Balkan War in The success of the Balkan League was in great interest of Russia which considered the military alliance between the Balkan states a very useful tool against the Dual Monarchy and hoped to gain an access to the Adriatic Sea through its Balkan proteges.
The French, on the other hand, opposed the Balkan War from the start because they were not prepare for war causex Germany. Great Britain, traditionally a supporter of the Ottoman conflivt integrity was convinced that the war in Europe can be avoided by mediation between Russia which could not afford to let down Serbia one more time on the one hand and Austria-Hungary and Germany on the other.
The Dual Monarchy which bitterly opposed a strong Serbian state was supported by the Germans who were building the Baghdad Railway that would connect Berlin to Baghdad through Istanbul. However, how to play fun run apparently did not hte quite ready for the war and chose to cooperate with Britain.
The London Conference of resolved the dangerous situation by creation of an independent Albania that prevented Serbia an access to the Adriatic Sea but it only postponed the what caused the conflict between russia and austria hungary of the Great War for another year.
The rivalry between the European powers seems the most obvious cause betweej World War 1 but internal factors played a major role as well. Each of the great powers had its own internal problems. Economic growth, progress of science and technological innovations had a major influence on the European society. Life changed for the better for everyone but the poor remained poor, while the rich were getting richer. The people started demanding social and how to keep worms out of broccoli changes, and strikes and demonstrations could turn violent even in industrialized countries.
The inability to deal with changed internal forces was most obvious in Russia that faced a major political and social unrest in which forced the government to tussia constitutional concessions. Austria-Hungary, on the other hand, was losing control over its non-German and non-Magyar subjects who were demanding political changes. Industrialization in France was slow and the French were frustrated about their military inferiority.
They were aware that they are unable to win Germany on their own. At the same time, the British businessmen were getting insecure about the British economic superiority and felt threatened by the German technological advance. Germany and Italy in the early 20th century experienced internal confoict as well.
Southern Italy did not experience the same level of industrialization than northern Italy, while Germany was faced with consequences of large scale industrialization and difficulties in reconciling its conservative cpnflict new social and economic forces. In addition, both countries were young and existed less than forty years.
The outbreak of World War 1 can be also attributed to a strong public support to the war and ignorance of its effects. At the same time, too many people ignored the dangers of the new industrialized warfare. In fact, the majority ane people in that summer were convinced that the what does egg on my face mean will be swiftly over and that the fighting will end by Christmas.
World War 1 was caused by a combination of several factors that made the most devastating military conflict to that time unavoidable. Assassination of the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne may have been the casus belli but it was only a spark which set off the "powder keg".
World War 1 was caused by a combination of several factors, in the first place: rivalry between Russia and Austria-Hungary in Southeastern Europe Austro-Hungarian fear from Serbia becoming the core of a future South Slavic state French revanchism after the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany in Shift to more bellicose policy in Germany after the accession of Wilhelm II in Anglo-German arms race Division of Europe into two military camps — the Triple Entente future Allies and the Central Powers the Scramble for Africa decline of the Ottoman Empire and disagreement about its future fate between the great powers internal tensions in European great powers strong public support to the war and ignorance of the dangers of industrialized warfare.
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Mar 11, · After a four-month-long armed standoff provoked by the First Balkan War, on March 11, , Austria-Hungary and Russia reached an agreement for both sides to . World War 1 was caused by a combination of several factors, in the first place: rivalry between Russia and Austria-Hungary in Southeastern Europe Austro-Hungarian fear from Serbia becoming the core of a future South Slavic state French revanchism after the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany in May 14, · ALL QUESTIONS ARE ABOUT WORLD WAR 1! 1. What CAUSED the conflict between Russia and Austria-Hungary? a. control over French Provinces. b. control over Morocco c. Control over Serbians d. no conflict 2. What two coutnries did not sign a treaty together during WW1? a. Austia-Hungary and France b. Germany and Austria-Hungary c. Russia and France d.
Germany, France, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Britain attempting to keep the lid on the simmering cauldron of imperialist and nationalist tensions in the Balkans to prevent a general European war. They were successful in and , but did not succeed in The main causes of World War I , which began in central Europe in late July , included many factors, such as the conflicts and hostility between the great European powers of the four decades leading up to the war.
Militarism , alliances , imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict as well. The immediate origins of the war, however, lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July Crisis of caused by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria Hungary and his wife Sophie by Gavrilo Princip , an irredentist Serb and member of the Serbian nationalist organization, the Black Hand. The crisis came after a long and difficult series of diplomatic clashes between the Great Powers Italy , France, Germany , Britain , Austria-Hungary and Russia over European and colonial issues in the decade before that had left tensions high.
In turn these diplomatic clashes can be traced to changes in the balance of power in Europe since Austria-Hungary competed with Serbia and Russia for territory and influence in the region and they pulled the rest of the Great Powers into the conflict through their various alliances and treaties.
Some of the most important long term or structural causes were the growth of nationalism across Europe, unresolved territorial disputes , an intricate system of alliances, the perceived breakdown of the balance of power in Europe,   convoluted and fragmented governance , the arms races of the previous decades, previous military planning ,  imperial and colonial rivalry for wealth, power and prestige, and economic and military rivalry in industry and trade — e. Other causes that came into play during the diplomatic crisis that preceded the war included misperceptions of intent e.
The various categories of explanation for World War I correspond to different historians' overall methods. Most historians and popular commentators include causes from more than one category of explanation to provide a rounded account of the causes of the war.
The deepest distinction among these accounts is between stories that see it as the inevitable and predictable outcome of certain factors, and those that describe it as an arbitrary and unfortunate mistake. In attributing causes for the war, historians and academics had to deal with an unprecedented flood of memoirs and official documents, released as each country involved tried to avoid blame for starting the war. Early releases of information by governments, particularly those released for use by the " Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War " were shown to be incomplete and biased.
In addition some documents, especially diplomatic cables between Russia and France, were found to have been doctored. In November , Russia was humiliated because of its inability to support Serbia during the Bosnian crisis of or the First Balkan War , and announced a major reconstruction of its military. On November 28, German Foreign Secretary Gottlieb von Jagow told the Reichstag the German parliament , that "If Austria is forced, for whatever reason, to fight for its position as a Great Power, then we must stand by her.
Haldane , the Germanophile Lord Chancellor, met with Prince Lichnowsky to offer an explicit warning that if Germany were to attack France, Britain would intervene in France's favor. With the recently announced Russian military reconstruction and certain British communications, the possibility of war was a leading topic at the German Imperial War Council of 8 December in Berlin, an informal meeting of some of Germany's top military leadership called on short notice by the Kaiser.
Wilhelm II called British balance of power principles "idiocy," but agreed that Haldane's statement was a "desirable clarification" of British policy. Moltke agreed. In his professional military opinion "a war is unavoidable and the sooner the better". Both Wilhelm II and the Army leadership agreed that if a war were necessary it were best launched soon.
Admiral Tirpitz, however, asked for a "postponement of the great fight for one and a half years"  because the Navy was not ready for a general war that included Britain as an opponent. He insisted that the completion of the construction of the U-boat base at Heligoland and the widening of the Kiel Canal were the Navy's prerequisites for war. Historians more sympathetic to the government of Wilhelm II often reject the importance of this War Council as only showing the thinking and recommendations of those present, with no decisions taken.
The result amounted to nothing. With the November announcement of the Russian Great Military Programme, the leadership of the German Army began clamoring even more strongly for a "preventive war" against Russia. Throughout May and June , Moltke engaged in an "almost ultimative" demand for a German "preventive war" against Russia in The prospects of the future oppressed him heavily.
In two or three years Russia would have completed her armaments. The military superiority of our enemies would then be so great that he did not know how he could overcome them. Today we would still be a match for them. In his opinion there was no alternative to making preventive war in order to defeat the enemy while we still had a chance of victory. The Chief of the General Staff therefore proposed that I should conduct a policy with the aim of provoking a war in the near future.
Had the Reich been interested in improved relations with France before August , the opportunity would have been available, but the leadership of the Reich lacked such interests, and preferred a policy of war to destroy France. Because of France's smaller economy and population, by French leaders had largely accepted that France by itself could never defeat Germany. German government at the time was still dominated by the Prussian Junkers who feared the rise of these left-wing parties.
Fritz Fischer famously argued that they deliberately sought an external war to distract the population and whip up patriotic support for the government. Other authors argue that German conservatives were ambivalent about a war, worrying that losing a war would have disastrous consequences, and even a successful war might alienate the population if it were lengthy or difficult. The situation in France was quite different from that in Germany as going to war appeared to the majority of political and military leaders to be a potentially costly gamble.
It is undeniable that forty years after the loss of Alsace-Lorraine a vast number of French were still angered by the territorial loss, as well as by the humiliation of being compelled to pay a large reparation to Germany in Nevertheless, the leaders of France recognized Germany's strong military advantage against them, as Germany had nearly twice as much population and a better equipped army.
France in had never been so prosperous and influential in Europe since , nor its military so strong and confident in its leaders, emboldened by its success in North Africa and the overall pacification of its vast colonial empire. The Entente Cordiale of with Britain held firm, and was supported by mutual interests abroad and strong economic ties.
Russia had fled the triple crown alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary because of disagreements with Austria-Hungary over policy in the Balkans. Russia also hoped that large French investments in its industry and infrastructures coupled with an important military partnership would prove themselves profitable and durable. The foreign ministry was filled with expert diplomats, but there was great turnover at the top. In the 18 months before the war there were six foreign ministers.
The leadership was prepared to fight Germany and attempt to gain back the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost in It is important to note however, that France never could have permitted itself to initiate a war with Germany, as its military pact with Britain was only purely defensive.
In , the Austrian Empire fundamentally changed its governmental structure, becoming the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. For hundreds of years, the empire had been run in an essentially feudal [ citation needed ] manner with a German-speaking [ citation needed ] aristocracy at its head. However, with the threat represented by an emergence of nationalism within the empire's many component ethnicities, some elements, including Emperor Franz Joseph , decided that a compromise was required to preserve the power of the German aristocracy.
In , the Ausgleich was agreed on, which made the Hungarian elite in Hungary almost equal partners in the government of Austria-Hungary. This arrangement fostered a tremendous degree of dissatisfaction amongst many in the traditional German ruling classes.
Throughout the fifty years from to , it proved difficult to reach adequate compromises in the governance of Austria-Hungary, leading many to search for non-diplomatic solutions. At the same time, a form of social Darwinism became popular among many in the Austrian half of the government. This thinking emphasised the primacy of armed struggle between nations, and the need for nations to arm themselves for an ultimate struggle for survival.
As a result, at least two distinct strains of thought advocated war with Serbia, often unified in the same people. Some reasoned that dealing with political deadlock required that more Slavs be brought into Austria-Hungary to dilute the power of the Hungarian elite.
Another fear was that the South Slavs, primarily under the leadership of Serbia, were organizing for a war against Austria-Hungary, and even all of Germanic civilization. A powerful contingent within the Austro-Hungarian government was motivated by these thoughts and advocated war with Serbia long before the war began. Although many other members of the government, notably Franz Ferdinand, Franz Joseph , and many Hungarian politicians did not believe that a violent struggle with Serbia would necessarily solve any of Austria-Hungary's problems, the hawkish elements did exert a strong influence on government policy, holding key positions.
Samuel R. Williamson has emphasized the role of Austria-Hungary in starting the war. Convinced Serbian nationalism and Russian Balkan ambitions were disintegrating the Empire, Austria-Hungary hoped for a limited war against Serbia and that strong German support would force Russia to keep out of the war and weaken its Balkan prestige. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange and neutral countries in grey. Some scholars have attributed the start of the war to imperialism.
Their frustrated ambitions, and British policies of strategic exclusion created tensions. In addition, the limits of natural resources in many European nations began to slowly alter trade balance, and make national industries seek new territories rich in natural resources. This was the scene of sharpest conflict between certain German and British commercial interests. There have been two partitions of Africa. One involved the actual imposition of political boundaries across the continent during the last quarter of the 19th century; the other, which actually commenced in the midth century, consisted of the so-called 'business' partition.
In southern Africa the latter partition followed rapidly upon the discoveries of diamonds and gold in and respectively. An integral part of this second partition was the expansion in the interior of British capital interests, primarily the British South Africa Company and mining companies such as De Beers.
After the Witwatersrand goldfields prompted feverish activity among European as well as British capitalists. It was soon felt in Whitehall that German commercial penetration in particular constituted a direct threat to Britain's continued economic and political hegemony south of the Limpopo.
Amid the expanding web of German business on the Rand, the most contentious operations were those of the German-financed N. Rivalries for not just colonies, but colonial trade and trade routes developed between the emerging economic powers and the incumbent great powers. Although still argued differently according to historical perspectives on the path to war, this rivalry was illustrated in the Berlin-Baghdad Railway , which would have given German industry access to Iraqi oil, and German trade a southern port in the Persian Gulf.
A history of this railroad in the context of World War I has arrived to describe the German interests in countering the British Empire at a global level, and Turkey's interest in countering their Russian rivals at a regional level. Rivalries among the great powers were exacerbated starting in the s by the scramble for colonies , which brought much of Africa and Asia under European rule in the following quarter-century.
It also created great Anglo-French and Anglo-Russian tensions and crises that prevented a British alliance with either until the early 20th century. Otto von Bismarck disliked the idea of an overseas empire, but pursued a colonial policy to court domestic political support. This started Anglo-German tensions since German acquisitions in Africa and the Pacific threatened to impinge upon British strategic and commercial interests. Bismarck supported French colonization in Africa because it diverted government attention and resources away from continental Europe and revanchism.
In spite of all of Bismarck's deft diplomatic maneuvering, in he was forced to resign by the new Kaiser Wilhelm II. After his loss of office in , German policy led to greater conflicts with the other colonial powers.
The status of Morocco had been guaranteed by international agreement, and when France attempted to greatly expand its influence there without the assent of all the other signatories Germany opposed it prompting the Moroccan Crises, the Tangier Crisis of and the Agadir Crisis of The intent of German policy was to drive a wedge between the British and French, but in both cases produced the opposite effect and Germany was isolated diplomatically, most notably lacking the support of Italy despite Italian membership in the Triple Alliance.
The French protectorate over Morocco was established officially in In , there were no outstanding colonial conflicts, Africa essentially having been claimed fully, apart from Ethiopia , for several years.
However, the competitive mentality, as well as a fear of "being left behind" in the competition for the world's resources may have played a role in the decisions to begin the new conflict. A loose web of alliances around the European nations existed many of them requiring participants to agree to collective defense if attacked :. This complex set of treaties binding various players in Europe together before the war sometimes is thought to have been misunderstood by contemporary political leaders.
The traditionalist theory of "Entangling Alliances" has been shown to be mistaken. The Triple Entente between Russia, France and the United Kingdom did not in fact force any of those powers to mobilize because it was not a military treaty.