A BeginnerТs Guide to Essential Oils Part 1: Essential Oil Extraction
Place 4 ounces of dried citronella leaves into a small jar and fill it with isopropyl alcohol, also known as rubbing alcohol. Set the jar down and leave it for three days. Place your collander on top of your pot. Strain the contents of the jar into the pot for transport into its final container. You have now successfully extracted citronella oil. Nov 12, †Ј 1 cheesecloth or gauze 3 Next, to make citronella oil you should mix the olive oil with the citronella leaves and stalks inside the slow cooker. Once boiled, strain the mixture using gauze or cheesecloth, always with a container underneath to collect the citronella oil, and discard plants that are left in the strainer/5(4).
A proposed method for citronella oil extraction was developed with the application of ohmic heated hydro-distillation. The objective was to compare the performance of three different extraction methods, viz.
The maximum amount of extracted oil yield by ohmic heated hydro-distillation was 7. The kinetics of extraction followed a second-order model. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis found that the major constituents of citronella oil GC-MS for the different extraction methods were citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol.
Scanning electron microscopy SEM of citronella grass provided evidence that the lignocellulosic sources of the extracted citronella oil were schizogenous cavities and cellular lignin.
The citronella that had undergone ohmic-heated hydro-distillation and steam distillation showed some microfractures and less cell wall degradation than hydro-distillation. How to make almond milk ice cream in a bag cell walls were less rigid using ohmic-heated hydro-distillation compared to steam distillation. However, the cell walls of the hydro-distillation sample were less dense and exhibited pronounced swelling, but did not show any microfractures.
Keywords: Kinetics; Ohmic-heated hydro-distillation; Extraction; Citronella structural changes. Cymbopogon nardusalso known as serai wangi or citronella grass, is native to South India and Sri Lanka. It can also be found growing wild in most tropical Asian countries, Central America, and Africa. Recently, this plant has been planted commercially by entrepreneurs for essential oil extraction Abdul Rahman Azmil et al.
Citronella oil is considered one of the 20 most important essential oils that are traded globally Lawrence Due to the market potential of how to extract citronella essential oil oil, its production can realise rural-sector participation in the citronella oil and aromatherapy industry Coronel et al. On the other hand, the citronella oil has been in comparatively high demand because of its wide usage in the perfume, soap manufacturing, cosmetics, and flavouring industries, and is effective as an insect repellent Duke and du Cellier ; Pandey ; Silva et al.
In addition, citronella grass is a non-woody plant and has lignocellulosic fiber characteristics Kaur et al. The cell wall is made of three major lignocellulosic constituents: cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin Wan Aizan et al. The cell wall is low in pectin and glycoproteins Moerschbacher and Mendgen Citronella is classified as a monocotyledon and has a less complex system of fibers and associated botanical components than dicotyledons.
Furthermore, less lignin is found in this lignocellulosic grass than in wood Kaur and Dutt Hydro-distillation and steam distillation are the most common or conventional methods for extracting oil from citronella Brugnera et al. Although the process is very simple, it can induce thermal degradation, hydrolysis, and water solubility of some fragrance constituents Reverchon and Marco Supercritical fluid extraction has also been introduced to extract citronella essential oil Silva et al.
However, this method has drawbacks such as high investment costs and a new and unfamiliar how to extract citronella essential oil of operation Mohamed and Mansoori Additionally, due to its low polarity, the extraction of polar analytes is difficult. This limitation may be overcome by adding small amounts of polar modifiers, such as methanol or ethanol, to the supercritical fluid. These measures enhance the solubility of solutes in supercritical fluid extraction, thus increasing the extraction efficiency Xiao et al.
Due to the success of natural herbs and sales of environmentally friendly products with encouraging returns, many entrepreneurs and herbal companies are currently what time is it in vladivostok russia plantations of aromatic plants such as citronella grass Nor Azah The commercialisation of citronella oil has led to the formation of small-scale citronella oil extraction facilities Torres and Tio Ohmic-heated hydro-distillation has been proposed as an alternative method for citronella oil extraction because the proposed prototype size is suitable for small- or medium-scale extraction facilities.
The objectives of this study were to propose and verify the kinetic models and performance of three extraction methods, namely, ohmic-heated hydro-distillation, hydro-distillation, and steam distillation, in terms of the oil yield and the chemical, physical, and scanning electron microscopy properties of citronella.
The citronella grass was cut approximately 15 cm from the plant base or ground level. The crushed citronella grass was immediately put into the distiller unit. For the first hour of extraction, the extracted oil was determined at min intervals. During the following hour, the extracted oil was determined at min intervals until it reached equilibrium.
At the end of each interval, the extracted oil yield was estimated as follows. What insulation to use for basement ohmic-heated hydro-distillation system is shown in Fig. The ohmic-heated hydro-distiller unit, which was 1. An electrically insulated outer shell served as the outer electrode.
Within the maximum current, two types of voltages could be used, i. The distillation unit was connected to a multi-tube condenser made from stainless steel The extraction parameters used were a power input of 77 V up to the boiling point of water, followed by 50 V until the end of the extraction, a water-to-citronella ratio ofand a crushing frequency of once.
The ohmic-heated hydro-distillation system: 1 ohmic-heated hydro distiller unit, 2 power supply, 3 multi-tube condenser unit, 4 temperature sensor, 5 clamp meter. The extraction parameters were a water-to-citronella ratio of and a crushing frequency of once. The extraction was performed using the same distillation unit as in Fig. The perforated grid plate was placed at the bottom of the distillation unit, and the citronella grass was placed on the grid.
Saturated steam generated from the boiler was injected through the perforated grid plate, separating the steam inlet at the bottom of the distillation unit Fig.
A single crushing motion was used. The steam distillation unit: a perforated grid plate, b connection to a boiler or steam inlet. The injected sample consisted of 1. The identification of the chemical constituents was carried out by calculating the retention indices and by comparing with the peaks of the Wiley and Adams library search data. A comparison of the GC-MS analyses of citronella oil samples obtained using the different methods was conducted with citronella oil produced by steam distillation at MARDI Kuala Linggi as a reference oil.
The specific gravity, refractive index, and colour were determined for the citronella oil samples from the different extraction methods and the reference oil. The specific gravity of the oil was determined by a Densitometer DAN. The refractive index of the oil was determined using an Atago No. SEM micrographs of the citronella grass raw material and citronella samples from different extraction what causes big veins in hands were obtained with a Hitachi scanning electron microscope Model SN under high-vacuum conditions and at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV.
To date, few reports are available in the literature regarding the kinetics of ohmic-heated hydro-distillation Gahavian et al. Hence, a second-order mechanism was assumed to be a plausible model for the kinetics of ohmic-heated hydro-distillation, as well as hydro-distillation and steam distillation. A second-order kinetics model means that the extraction occurred in two simultaneous processes.
The amount of extracted oil increased rapidly at the beginning of extraction and decreased gently until the end of the extraction process Ho et al. The extraction was assumed to proceed as Ho et al. The concentration level of saturated water-solute in suspension is considered constant for the same extraction conditions. After the water-solute had dissolved into suspension, the derivatives diffused from the porous citronella grass particles into the bulk liquid phase.
The extraction order and rate constant must be determined experimentally. Therefore, a second-order rate law expression for the extraction, which demonstrated how the rate depends on the water-solute dissolved to suspension, was employed.
The rate of dissolution for the oil contained in the solid can be described by this equation. Comparison of citronella oil extraction methods from Cymbopogon nardus grass by ohmic-heated hydro-distillation, hydro-distillation, and steam distillation.
YOU MAY ALSO LIKE
Citronella oil is a prominent essential oil made from the extracts of a distinct species Cymbopogon plant. Stems and leaves of this species, commonly known as lemongrass, are used for making citronella oil extracts. The oil is primarily used as a source in production of perfumery chemicals such . Abstract. A proposed method for citronella oil extraction was developed with the application of ohmic heated hydro-distillation. The objective was to compare the performance of three different extraction methods, viz. ohmic heated hydro-distillation, hydro-distillation, and steam distillation. The maximum amount of extracted oil yield by ohmic heated hydro-distillation was mL/kWh as compared to . Jun 18, †Ј Citronella Oil Recipes. Taken from my Essential Oils Guide, here are several methods for safely using citronella oil at home. Aromatically: You can diffuse the oil in your home or backyard just like a candle using a lovemedat.com make a natural room freshener, put a few drops of oil along with water into a spritzer bottle.
Citronella oil is an essential oil extracted from Lemongrass Cymbopogon , an herb plant native to Southeast Asia. Citronella is widely used in the beauty industry.
However, can it be used as a mosquito repellent? Citronella oil can be found as an active ingredient in products ranging from sprays and lotions to even scented candles.
Citronella oil protects against not just mosquitoes but even other tiny pests like flies and fleas. In recent years the use of citronella oil in insect repellent products has increased tremendously. Since the oil can be applied on skin without the fear of an allergic reaction, its use in commercial products has grown exponentially. Likewise, the oil is safe for direct application on clothes and does not discolor or stain. The oil can also be applied on areas of skin where mosquitoes have already bitten to reduce itchiness and redness.
Many people believe the Lemongrass plant itself is what acts as an insect repellent, however, that is not true. It is the oil, or more importantly, the bioactive compounds present in the essential oil which protects us from the mosquitoes. These molecules repel mosquitoes by creating a masking effect on the skin. Keep in mind Citronella oil does not kill mosquitoes; it only repels them by manipulating their sense of smell.
It is so non-toxic that it even spares the lives of mosquitoes. When applied on skin the oil blocks other smells given off by the body which mosquitoes use to track humans. For instance, Citronella oil masks the scent of carbon dioxide and lactic acid, naturally released by humans, making it difficult for mosquitoes to find us!
Scientific evidence suggests different mixtures of Citronella oil can ward off mosquitoes from 2 hours, if diluted, to even 12 hours, when undiluted. Using citronella oil is a good way of avoiding mosquito bites when you are participating in outdoor activities such as hiking, taking a walk, or even just BBQing. With zero chemicals, it is safe for your skin and respiratory system. Before you get too excited and rush to the nearest store to buy citronella oil repellent, considering making your own citronella oil repellent.
The best thing about citronella oil is that it naturally keeps away mosquitoes all by itself. The most effective and simplest form of citronella repellent is a spray. To make a citronella oil spray all you need is a few simple ingredients and a few minutes of your time.
The simple ingredients required to make citronella oil spray are:. Fill the bottle with 2oz of water and then add 1oz of alcohol. Slowly add 50 to 75 drops of pure citronella essential oil to the bottle. For safety, measure the total percentage of the essential oil to be 15 percent of the rest of the mixture. Do not fill the bottle to its brim so that there is room for shaking. Close the bottle and shake it to mix the solutions and voila a homemade mosquito repellent spray is ready!
Check out this recipe for homemade mosquito repellent lotion. Just remember to reapply every minutes as a citronella oil based lotion will not last much longer. Also, be mindful that your skin may be sensitive to citronella oil. Start small with a test area before applying everywhere. If a person accidentally consumes citronella oil they may have an irritated throat and small cough. According to the EPA, the oil breaks down in the system and there is no danger of toxicity.
To be extra safe, remember to avoid placing your fingers in your mouth after use. As advised by senior researcher Gideon Koren from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research during pregnancy women should avoid all types of essential oils, including citronella oil, due to risk of unexpected reactions. Repelling mosquitoes can be tricky business. For us, the trade off was worth it.
We used Citronella mosquito spray and were left with a few remaining mosquitoes. What do you prefer? Do you have any other natural mosquito repellent ideas? Let us know by contacting us! Table of Contents. Check Price.