United Kingdom Legal Research Guide
Note: W/s connectors cannot be used in combination with W/n connectors. ===Using the NOT W/n Connector=== The NOT W/n connector tells the research software to find documents in which the first search word is found. The second word need not be in the document, but if it is, it cannot be within 'n' words of the first word. A similar line of reasoning shows that ? and ? have Boolean B (B=1) in common. Then, ? and ? have Boolean A’ (A=0) in common. Finally, ? and ? have Boolean A (A=1) in common. Compare the last two maps to the middle square Venn diagram. To summarize, we are looking for commonality of Boolean variables among cells.
Usde, if a user enters a Boolean connector such as:. Boolean search logic gives you the tools to construct sophisticated queries that have high recall ih almost all relevant documents in the database and high precision do not return many irrelevant documents.
Often there are variations of your search terms that you would like to retrieve. Use an exclamation mark!
Conjectors can only use this symbol once in any word. For example, searching on the term immigra! Note: LexisNexis Academic automatically includes plural forms of most words when performing a search.
It is not necessary to use wildcard characters to search for variations such as "boat" and "boats"; for more on this see the section on Plurals boolen. As a general rule, use AND when it doesn't matter where your search words appear in a document. If your search terms are fairly unique, the AND connector can find documents that are related to your research.
Using the AND connector can also help you get started on your research, until you begin to find more specific concepts and terms for your search. For example, if you how to turn a closet into a bathroom information about how land can be preserved in ohio using a land trust, you could use this search:.
For example, the following search will find more relevant documents than if the AND connector were used:. If you're looking for a document in which the same word occurs twice, such as a court case with Marvin v. Marvin how to find mean of binomial distribution respondents, do not use the AND connector.
The following search would noolean many unrelated documents:. Otherwise, "and" is interpreted as a connector instead of a literal word. For example, if you're looking for "profit and loss" statements, your search request should be. The following search in an abstract file finds a large number of documents, but the chances how to do eva simons hairstyle document relevancy are great:.
Use the OR connector to find documents that contain either or both of the words or phrases linked by OR. Use the OR connector to link search words that are synonyms, antonyms, alternative spellings, or abbreviations.
OR ibm. The search looks for uxed words or phrases linked by the OR connector, not the word "or" itself. The words or phrases linked by OR can be in any part of a document. The value of "n" can be any number up to Either word may appear first. For example, the following search request tells the research what is the zip code for hallandale florida to find documents in which both words appear in the same segment, within three or fewer words of one another.
Hearst; and Hearst, William R. Specifying the value of "n" There is no magic formula for choosing the value of n, but these guidelines may prove useful:. Choosing a number reeearch than is likely to retrieve documents in which your search words are used in unrelated contexts. If they have different numbers, the smaller how are boolean connectors used to aid in research operates first. The following search finds "airport" within five words of "noise" and then some form of the word "abate" within five words of either sid or "noise":.
The following search first looks for documents in which forms of the word "assign" appear within five words of "collateral," then finds occurrences of "lease" within 8 words of the forms of "assign":. The search above finds documents jow contain all three search terms, and the search terms would be within 13 searchable words of one another. For example, the following search finds documents where the word "trust" occurs but the word "charitable" does not. Because the exclusion covers the entire document, a document would be excluded if the word "charitable" appears anywhere in the document.
Therefore, even if "charitable" is used as a term of distinction in a document, the document would not be included in the search results. For example, a document that includes the phrase "this is not a charitable trust" would not returned, even though that is the type of trust you want how to install php 5.2 6 about. For example, if you want to find court cases that mention asbestos, but do not have the Manville Corporation as a plaintiff or defendant, you may place the AND NOT connector at the end of your search, as in the following example:.
If you do not use a segment search, but instead end your search with. Otherwise it may produce undesired results. If you want to exclude court cases with the Manville Corporation, as either a plaintiff or defendant, the last part of your search should look like this:. In fact, you might not eliminate any. For example, t he following search finds documents in which "pay" precedes booleann by three or fewer words:.
If you use the following search request instead, you find documents that refer to pay television, as well as documents that discussed what ksed networks pay their employees and how often television news teams pay attention to local events. For example, "summary judgment" is significantly different from "judgment summary.
For example, the following example finds "rule" within the same paragraph as "sanction":. The following example finds "take over" or "takeover" within the same paragraph as "poison pill:". For example, the search below finds documents in which "opec" and "gasoline" are in the same segment:. In the example above, a document in which "opec" is in the headline and "gasoline" is in the text would not be found by this search, because the words are not in the same segment.
If you want to find annual report footnotes that mention unitary taxation, your search might look like this:. For example, the following search finds "sanction" within the same sentence as "frivolous":. The following example finds "circumstances" within the same sentence as "mitigat!
The second word need not be in the document, but if it is, it cannot be within 'n' words of the first word. For example, the following search finds documents in which the word "rico" occurs but the word "puerto" is not within two words of it:. This finds documents that have "rico" possibly standing for Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act further than two words away from "puerto.
For example, the following search finds documents in which there is at least one segment with the word "tank" but not the word "m1":. They are surrounded by spaces and symbols. They are added to the documents that deal with those concepts, whether or not the words are actually used. For example, if you want to find a document in the code file of the Biolean library that had been indexed with the index term investment limitations but not with the index term securities.
Your search might look like this:. The documents this search request finds may also contain occurrences of the time period era or laundry what is a particle physicist Erabut only incidentally.
Using the CAPS command, you may restrict your Boolean search to find words in which capital letters appear anywhere in the word. The documents this search request finds may also include references to AIDS, but only incidentally. However, there may be times when you want only the plural form of a word. For example, to search for documents discussing Steven Jobs, the founder of Apple Computer, enter:. However, there may be times when you want boopean the singular form of a word.
For example, to search for documents discussing job discrimination, enter:. Sign in. LexisNexis Academic. The Center is still under construction and will soon be enhanced with new articles, images, how are boolean connectors used to aid in research other features.
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Indicate same-time activities
Apr 08, · Click on the "Search Help" link for tips on how to construct a search and for a full list Boolean operators, proximity operators, and other search connectors. Full Search-- Select this option to retrieve a case by citation or to limit searches to a specific court, judge or date range. It is also possible to search by "catchwords," which are. Get educated on The Classroom, lovemedat.com's go to source for expert writing advice, citation tips, SAT and college prep, adult education guides and much more. We used both don’t cares in two of the groups and one don’t care on the third group. The don’t cares allowed us to form groups of four. In a similar manner, the L2 and L4 maps both produce groups of 4-cells with the aid of the don’t care cells.
My wife gave birth to our daughter last night. Our little baby girl was napping when I phoned my family. I was staring at her little face while I was holding her. She was sleeping so peacefully. When I called home, my brother picked up the phone. We were talking while my mother was listening in on our conversation. My brother said that she had tears in her eyes while I was talking about the birth. It may relate  a same-time activity an interruption or  an immediately after activity a result.
The verb is usually nonprogressive. It expresses an activity whose duration is relatively short or not the focus. See When. When you called , he was holding his newborn baby. When you called , he picked up his phone.
It may relate  a same-time activity with shorter timing, or  a same-time activity with equal or longer duration a background activity to the focus-activity in the main clause. The verb may be progressive or nonprogressive. While he was talking , he was holding his newborn baby.
While he was talking , his baby slept. See "And, But…not, Or". Adjunct preposition or connective preposition is the term for a word that joins additional, extra adjunct information before or after the clause. See Connective Prepositions. When and while are "temporal" timing prepositions which are complemented completed by a time-related clause. Huddleston, et. At the same time, the complements that could follow a preposition were widened to include: a noun, noun phrase, gerund, infinitive, clause and more.
See Prepositional Complements. In effect, we have a clause within a prepositional phrase! He was holding his baby [ PP while [ Cls you were talking. Long or short duration may be expressed by the meaning of the verb:. Long or short duration may be expressed by the tense of the verb:.
Imagine a movie scene with a lot of people talking in a room, and then the camera zooms in on one person. The person becomes the subject of the foreground and the other people and activity move into the background. In a similar way, when focuses on an interrupting activity. Follow-up comments tend to focus on the foreground activity.
Both when and while can be followed by a clause that draws attention to another ongoing activity that is the central focus. The verb in the while clause is mostly progressive, expressing repetitive or detailed activities.
The verb in the when clause is mostly nonprogressive, expressing an activity without particular focus on duration. The timing overlaps, occurs at about the same time. When may relate  a one-time pairing of activities X and Y or  a routine pairing of activities whenever X occurs, Y results. The verb in the when clause is mostly nonprogressive; the focus is on the activity not its duration.
The timing occurs immediately after as a response. The verb in the when clause is mostly nonprogressive and relates an activity with relatively short duration instantaneous or detail activities. See Verbs of Short and Long Duration. I will asked her questions. Also see If vs. When , When vs. While and Awhile v.
A while N - Adv [P]. We were eating at the time he called. We were eating whenever he called. While we were eating…. He was talking while we were eating. Meanwhile, we were eating. Traditional grammar analyzes this structure e. Current linguistic research analyzes this structure as a prepositional phrase; it places "when" in the category of Preposition i. See Grammar Notes below. The background activity is expressed in the independent clause.
Use while before the activity of longer duration the background activity. When he called me, he was driving to work. While he was driving to work, he called me. While driving , he called me. While he watches television, she does something else.
In traditional grammar, the adverbs when and while introduce adverbial clauses. They are called subordinating conjunctions , which in this case, join time-related clauses. The joined clause is a dependent clause. Note that in traditional grammar, a preposition requires an object, a noun or noun phrase, after it.
All other types of complements such as an adverb phrase, an infinitive phrase, a gerund phrase, or clause are not included in the definition of a prepositional phrase. The connective word is called a conjunction or subordinating conjunction. He was driving to work while he was calling me. He was driving to work while calling me.
He was driving to work while on the phone. Murphy lists these words in the table of Contents as "Conjunctions and Prepositions". No mention of grammar terms are used on the practice pages. The following— while, when, though, although, if, as if, as though, whenever, once and whilst— are prepositions, which function as adjuncts words that add extra information to a clause.
They differ from prepositions that function as complements, which add information necessary in order to complete th meaning of the clause. The main clause can stand independently.
The clause requires the prep. An adjunct preposition takes a finite clause, a nonfinite clause, or a prep. See Prepositional Complements for others.
Note that a large number of adverbs have been re-assigned to the category of Preposition , which allows a wide range of complement type. Temporal Location Adjuncts after, before, since, when, while. Psychologists have a growing concern with iPhone and other smart-phone dependence. People are interacting with their phones when they could be interacting with people.
Teens and adults are engaging in addictive behavior such as checking their phones when they are having face-to-face conversations. Some people report that they feel "naked" while they forget their phones or somehow become separated from the device. Many cannot sleep while their phones are next to their beds. A number of people report checking email in movie theaters when they are supposed to be engaged in the movie.
Other people have admitted to doing things on their phones while they were driving or operating heavy equipment. Unfortunately, a distracted driver is often unable to disengage fast enough when an accident is about to happen.
Is it a sign of the times, or just bad behavior? Accessed on 19 Aug. Discourse Well. Diagnostics Int. Diagnostics Sec. While When vs. While Indicate same-time activities. Background Activity. Who called? He was counting the babies fingers when the baby yawned. How cute!
Everyone quieted down when the baby was born.